The conventional methods for implanting embryos in In vitro fertilization are:
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Embryo Transfer (ET)
In the process of in vitro fertilization, the egg and sperm are cultured in an embryo culture laboratory after the husband’s semen has gone through sperm wash and sperm sorting procedures. The fertilized egg is cultured for more than 48 hours and undergoes various developmental stages, such as the 4-cell stage, 8-cell stage, morula stage, or blastula stage, before being transferred to the patient’s uterus on Days 2, 3, or 4, depending on the patient’s clinical condition and requirements. The embryo is subsequently passed through the vagina and cervix. (See Figures 1-20, 1-21, 1-22, 1-23, and 1-24.)
Figure 1-20 Two-cell phase
Figure 1-21 Four-cell phase
Figure 1-22 Eight-cell phase
Figure 1-23 Morula phase
Figure 1-24 Embryo development into blastocyst stage
Figure 1-25 Two-Pronuclear phase, 2PN
ZIFT (Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer)
Following 24 hours of culture, the fertilized egg develops and enters the 2 pronuclear stage (2PN Stage). Direct laparoscopic transfer of the embryo into the fallopian tube is required at this point. Women with healthy, unblocked fallopian tubes can use this technique.
GIFT (Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer)
The husband’s sperm and the wife’s eggs are combined on the day of egg retrieval, and the resulting mixture is then placed right away into the fallopian tube to undergo fertilization. The fallopian tube serves as a site for embryonic development as well. Women with healthy, unblocked fallopian tubes can use this technique.
TMET (Trans Myometral Embryo Transfer)
Transvaginal ultrasonography is used to directly implant the embryo within the myometrium. While employing the methods described above, implantation failure can occur, or in cases where a woman’s uterus is severely anteverted or retroverted.
TET (Tubal Embryo Transfer)
The fertilized egg develops and enters the 2 to 4-cell stage after 48 hours of culturing. Direct laparoscopic transfer of the embryo into the fallopian tube is required at this point. This implantation method can be used to further observe how the fertilized egg’s division goes to identify the best embryo for implantation, which also boosts the rate of implantation. Women with healthy, unblocked fallopian tubes can use this technique.